ABC’s of Communism Lecture No 129

ABC's of Communism   Lecture No  129

The Earliest Americans

This is lecture number 129 in the ABCs Of communism series and this cerebral Support of forthcoming vol 8 on Communism in North America prior to White contact and our subject this Morning that for will be the very first Americans and that’ll be a chapter 111 Of your textbook when you get it now it Was late it was late May in 1969 excuse Me well let’s start over again it was Late May in 1969 when our lead vehicle In white ice mountain archaeological Expedition pulled onto the old official Site on the Talton River in northern British Columbia Now geographically we were at the Confluence of the tall tan and Stikine Rivers socio-culturally we were a Century into the past at about the time Of white contact in this part of the Canadian subarctic now geologically we Were near Canada’s only active volcano Known to the Native American Tolton People as ice mountain and on the ice White man’s maps is about as I said now I have been accepted into the graduate Program at the Department of archaeology At the University of Calgary of 1967 and At that time Professor Richard g4 was in His congratulatory letter to me in Los Angeles had asked where I wanted to Specialize and I had responded in the Far north Now when Rachel and I had arrived in

Calgary at the end of August the Previous year that is 1968 he told me That the only specialist they had in the Far north Richard s mcNeish had just left Canada He had gone to Andover Massachusetts to Take up by far less financially Lucrative appointment at Phillips Academy however it had the research Funding McNeese wanted for his projects In Mexico and through at the Rs Peabody Foundation hit court on that ruling Class prep school campus now meanwhile Forest had arranged at office for me With Bryan Gordon who was a graduate Student specializing in the far north And he had arranged with Charles You be seeing Vancouver to be my External examiner so in my first year at Calgary gordon introduced me to an area Of canada i had not previously Considered and that we were there in the Way of preparation in addition to my Heavy course load Brian had schooled me In the ways of the far north and he had Been kind enough to share with me the Results of a preliminary survey he had Conducted on the in the area of Telegraph Creek British Columbia and he Had returned with bags of obsidian tools He had collected from surface scattering Sites between Telegraph Creek and the Old fish house site where we had now Arrived now fortunately the Indians had

Not collected these obsidian flakes Blades and tools for their own reasons No white people had been up there to Collect anything with the exception of What graduate student from Alaska named Bill Worsley and using Brian’s field Data and maps from the Geological Survey Of Canada we had located already five Areas we wish to test for the presence Of artefactual remains in stratigraphic Context that is we had located them with Aerial photographs and and on top of Graphic maps all of which we were able To get from the Geological Survey of Canada which was just about half a mile Down the road Now the first of these was the old Fish House site itself that had the remains Of over the last 200 years ranging from Projectile points of obsidian and bottle Glass and Chinese coins from the Earliest foreign contact now I’m going To skip to the two most important finds We made that summer we have discussed This before previous chapters and Lectures so I won’t have to go into as Much detail but just to refresh your Memory the first was at a site that Contained a complete set of obsidian Micro blades and micro blade cores and That discovery was the result of the Lead given to us by former Tolton Chief John E karlik now he took us to a site Where he said he had been born and

Raised when there was about 2,000 people In his village They’re in a four-and-a-half to buy 2-liter pits and in the top ten Centimeters we had found what turned out To be a complete Kobayashi tulle Assemblage and that I just pulled this Book out of the bookcase this morning my Textbook published in 67 had them as Pictures of that excavation and the Location of the site and this complete Toolkit and as I say we’ve gone over This before so what I’m doing here is Refreshing your memory now but these Weren’t the very first Americans this Was a second wave and I’m going to get To that now but the Obsidian dating on The east was done by Leslie B Davis Who’s now passed away but at that time Was a graduate student and he used the Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University and obsidian hydration to do The actual sectioning of the tools now I Wrote my doctoral thesis about that Assemblage and photographs have been Published in the journal field Archaeology and as I say in my textbook Foundations of archaeology now the Second most important find we made was On a terrace about a hundred feet above The old fish house site now this was an Ancient terraced made much earlier than The one we had camped on and on it we Found an in it we found completely

Different type of fertile assemblage There were no obsidian tools at all but There were basalt tools including one Nicely made large blade tool and some Fragments of similar material in direct Association with an old fireplace Nowaday ting would have to be geological And tabah logical as the charcoal of the Fireplace had been inundated countless Times by rain and snowfall as well as Reutlitz and ruins so later that would Conclude that this represented the first Or at least much earlier occupation Route of people from Northeast Asia and I think this is the earliest remnant of That migration across the bering land Bridge were one of them anyway Or highland hopping along the North Pacific coast of people entering the new World and along with a graduate student Valerie Harrison I published a report on This assemblage in the Journal of field Archaeology now from whence they came These first Americans came from Northeast Asia I think we can define at Least two waves of immigrants the first Wave we had come across on the Talton River ancient terrorist site that I just Discussed and the second wave is Represented in John Carly’s village site With its complete Kobayashi toolkit let Us look at the geography of Northeast Asia now Siberia borders in the West on The Urals mountains from there to the

Central Siberian highlands and the basin Of the Lena River we arrive at the North East Siberian Highlands and during the Ice ages of the fauna and flora of the North East Siberian Highlands continues All the way to Alaska across Meridian Now during interglacials when the ice Recedes in the oceans rise meridia Becomes increasingly water logged and Eventually submerged so that the eastern Frontier of siberia is what’s the same As it is today so bridge is the name we Give to the that part which is now the Bering straits when it’s above land i Mean above water when it’s land that is It has a coastline with the fauna and Flora associated with the far northern Hemisphere now the climate in Siberia is Variable Rock Usha northeast of the leta In the winter is among the coldest Places on earth rainfall is very low all The time this is true of the Southwest As well where steppes deserts and Semi-desert Mordor on one another south west of Siberia Now the climate situation is responsible For the different biomes of the regime Region in the northernmost section there Is hundred with minimal vegetation Before the beginning of the Holocene About 11,500 years The tundra extended much further south And an ice sheet covered the Urals and

The area to the east of the lower Yenisei today the largest part of Siberia aside from the mountainous Regions is taiga that is northern Coniferous forests in the southwest This becomes forested steppe and even Further south and transitions to grass Nips and the Central Asian desert during The North American Illinoisan glaciation And ice sheet some two miles thick Covered the northern hemisphere rather Continuously now in Siberia it was God By a hundred thousand years ago or what Is called the Sangam on interglacial in North America that said the one period Lasted until about 70,000 years ago Where the ice sheets began to reform now These are called Wisconsin in North America the ice lasted through its Maximum extent in southern protrusion And in thickness that occurred about 22,000 years ago and after this the Wisconsin glaciation began to melt and It aided all together some 11,500 years Ago Now the sea levels again began to rise And the connection to Siberia to Alaska That we call Beringia was resubmit Now there’s a 2010 excellent documentary Movie streaming on Netflix called happy People a year in the taiga and you Should watch this story about the Village of bhakti in Central Siberia on The Yenisei River many of the

Diagnostics of primitive communism have Been carried over into a pre modern Communism form and for all these reasons Will be helpful in understanding this Particular chapter now a primitive Communism in the form of lower Paleolithic archaeological sites Littered the Siberian landscape between East Kazakhstan to the Altai Republic And the DNA dinanath old child burial Was found at tesak – whose mecca stand In 1938 Along with tools that shows similarities With the mysterious artefactual Assemblages of iraq and arab now Primitive communism continues in Our Paleolithic archeological remains in The urals mountains petroglyphs Depicting mammoths are found on the Altai River and on the upper Yenisei River west of Lake Baikal you’ll recall A primitive my primitive communism were Referring to the technology the Technological component of culture not To the social organizational component At any rate the pictographs are found Dating the 25,000 BP before present on The shore of the Laptev sea north of the Arctic Circle now similarly dated Remains of huts have been found in the Settlement of Malta near Irkutsk Sculptures of animals and Venus Figurines of women date to the Siberian Upper Paleolithic and in the post

Glacial period taiga or swampy Caen Difference forest occurs of the high Northern latitudes especially between The tundra and steppes of Siberia and North America microbleeds and microtools Appear in the Upper Paleolithic and Continue through the Siberian Mesolithic In Siberia from 7,500 to 5400 BP Archaeological sites featured the Introduction of pottery Southwest Siberia by 5000 BP witnessed the Introduction of copper working and this Is far later than the period that were Particularly interested in right now Which is the people who were hunters and Gatherers from the time of their very First arrival in the Americas that Hunting and gathering lower Paleolithic Bullit production lasted until the Middle Paleolithic when broad-spectrum Well resource exploitation was sixth up Throughout Northeast Asia now south of Siberia is Mongolia at 603 actually Almost six hundred four thousand square Miles Mongolia is covered by grassy step With mountains to the north and west and The Gobi Desert to the south blue and White or which is Mongolian for a red Flag is the capital and largest city in 1923 the Roy Chapman Andrews expedition Of the American Museum of Natural History and New York arrived in Mongolia now he Returned with many micro blades and

Micro blade course some of which were Lost until I found them at the Field Museum in Chicago and any rate Homo Erectus probably inhabited when Mongolia But fossils of erectus have not yet been Found there Homo sapiens did occupy Mongolia by eight hundred thousand years Ago we know this because stone tools Have been found in the southern Gobi Dating back that early at his stage at a Thousand years and globally in this Presentation I assert that all humans Had advanced from their erectus stage to Their sapiens stage like 1 million years Ago another way of putting it is that All humans had cubic centimetre Cranial capacities of 1,500 cc’s by that Time now these people were hunters and Gatherers from the time of their arrival That hunting and gathering lower Paleolithic bonus production lasted Until the Middle Paleolithic when Broad-spectrum wild resource Exploitation was extent Micro bladed micro blade core makers of The Upper Paleolithic occupied all of Mongolia they were broad-spectrum wild Resource exploiters of land and lake Dwelling plant and animal species there Remains constitute part of the northeast Asian northwest american micro blade Tradition or nonet na-na mt which Covered all of both those areas of the Upper Paleolithic and lithic times that

Is of the old and new worlds Respectively where we use those those Terms as equivalents now in June of 2016 Polish and Mongolian researchers found Stone tools in the southern gobi desert These they described as highly Diversified forms of objects and the Varied techniques of working stone that Proved that certain locations were Repeatedly colonized Josef Sarkozy and the Wroclaw University Says the oldest dates to the Middle Paleolithic Are between 200,000 and 40,000 years ago The lakeshore site Poets were deposited when wildlife was Abundant the team also recovered 11 Jasper artifacts which were dated to About 40,000 years ago in the Upper Paleolithic that mode of production was Perfected in the form of micro blades And cores so we have proof there of Continuity the Himalaya and greater or Lesser King and mountains walked the Warm and wet air from penetrating Northeast Asia even so the climate was More humid hundreds of thousands of Years ago that it is today now as for The crossing itself the land area Connecting Northeast Asia and northwest America has said as I as cold as I have Said meridia it was westerly bounded by The Lena River in Russia easterly it was Bounded by the Mackenzie River in Canada

It extended north to 72 degrees north Latitude bordering on the truck cheese Sea and on the South that extended to The tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula Baresi Beringia included the Chukchi Sea The Bering Sea the Bering Strait the Chukchi and Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia as well as Alaska in the United States during the Pleistocene Ice Ages Like most of Siberia and all of north And northeast China it was not glaciated Because snowfall was late it was a Grassland steppe stretching for hundreds Of miles Now as for its role as the road into the New world During Pleistocene glaciation of which There have been five in the last four Million years bridge via form the bering Land bridge it was 620 miles wide Covering six hundred twenty thousand Square miles another way of thinking About its size is that it was as large As British Columbia and Alberta together Now across this bridge Paleolithic People moved into northwestern North America by a hundred thousand years ago And initially they found their passage Eastward blocked by huge feet of ice Until a temporary recession in Wisconsin glaciation opened an ice-free Corridor through Alberta then people Made their way further south so that They arrived in Brazil by 70,000 BP and

Along their way they left many Archaeological raves in North and South America now banned organized primitive Communists human populations moved Across this entire Beringia area from Illinoisan times until a historical era I consider the ancient Talton River Terrace site discussed above to be Evidence of one early migration my Doctoral dissertation presented proof of Another later migration that had Originated in northern China Mongolia Siberia and northern Japan and as we Have seen descendants of these people Arrived in northern BC by 9,500 years Ago Alaska witnessed all five major Pleistocene glaciation and a multitude Of my Irwin’s during Pleistocene Glaciations it had a cool climate at Corresponding environments during Interglacials alaskan climate varied From Arctic and subarctic to alpine and Subalpine to subtropical and Interglacial Alaska climates varied from Arctic and subarctic interglacial low Sea levels exposed the land bridge Connecting it to Siberia early humans And humans they hunted across this Bridge now archaeologists have excavated Their remains and those of then Contemporary local wildlife including Butchered woolly mouse and the graphic Native Americans interpreted local Fossils mythologically some of these

Local fossils had attracted the Attention of formally trained scientists By the 1830s and major local finds could The kick heck tango ciick pack Rhinosaurus bone bed the Pleistocene age Of the woolly mammoth balances from a Genius is the Alaska State fossil in 2017 Chinese scientists announced They had recovered and reconstructed the Entire genome of a woolly mammoth their Research waits permission go to the next Step which is insertion of the mammoth DNA into the egg of an East Asian Elephant exactly the kind of procedure That you saw Jurassic Park which was of Course visualized the people who hunted Them were primitive communists organized His bands eventually as tribes of Hunter-gatherers they found out found Out south of the continental glaciation That covered candidate and much of what Is now the lower 48 United States and Spread throughout the rest of the Continent Meanwhile in Beringia with the Inundation complete after the last ice Age the only land still visible is at Its center these mountainous protrusions Are the Diamonds the Pribilof islands St. Louis Island and King Island today Early Alaskans are divided into several Main groups the southeastern coastal Native Americans the Tlingit Haida and Simpson the Athabascans the Aleut and

The two groups of Eskimos called Inupiat And you pick now prehistoric Siberia had Several archaeologically distinct Cultures then the ethnographic cultures Of western and southern Siberia were Pastoral those of the eastern taiga and The tundra were her gathers nomads Immersed in a Central Asian steppes About 3000 BP on the diabete island site According to the US Census Bureau the Village has a total land area of 2.84 Square miles little Diomede is located 25 miles west of the mainland in the Middle of the Bering Strait and it’s 2.4 Miles from the Russian big Diomede Island when Alaska was connected to Siberia by the Bering Land Bridge little Die beiden was a part of that bridge the First visitors there came by foot on the Bridge and on top of the sea ice As the sea level rule was driftwood and Whale skin boats were used for visiting Big diabete island Well whale hunting fishing and mainland Occurs all through mainland Alaska in Siberia now an Akula is the oldest Archaeological site in the Aleutian Islands they added Google archeological District national historic landmark you Saw the tiny one and a half mile long A newly act Island or anaguma Island of The Aleutian island chain the ANA Ghulam Archeological district consists of two Pre-contact sites the ANA gula village

Site and the ANA goola goola core and Blade manufacturing site the letter sits Atop a bluff that provides a view of Fish sea mammals and passing boats a Ridge line protects the site from strong Aleutian winds and the core blade side Of a loosely is that means the place for Making stone blades is around 9,000 Years old it represents one of the Earliest known human human occupations In the Aleutian chain and the earliest Known ancestors of the nangan or Alaskan Hallelu the Koren blade site covers an Extensive horizontal area the most Common stone tool making technique at The site produces long narrow blades Which shield polyhedral shaped cores Many of the blades are retouched with Fighter flaking perpendicular to the Edges to create a sharper blade in some Ways these are similar to the micro Bleed core and micro blade technology Found in Northeast Asia and at Telegraph BC Telegraph Creek BC but without the Distinct Kobayashi System a and this important relationship Needs to be worked out much of it of Course is underwater now other stone Tools include scrapers of the breeders These tools are fashioned from Kirk Shales assault and andesite and obsidian None of which is available in the Immediate area another curious feature Of this specialized manufacture site

Is the absence of Hammerstone’s the Absence of striking tools at this Manufacturing site leads to three Possibilities first the same material of The blades was used for basic striking Tools second organic materials used as Hammers have decomposed and third the Artist carried their tool making tools Away with them when they left the Factory the core and blade factory is Covered by multiple layer layers of ash From the aqua Pokeno in some places up To 60 thick the technology of the Akula Core and blade volcano at a Nagoya in Some places as the same as the upper Prolific in tool technology of Siberia DNA studies have been done on Contemporary unloosen Islanders and on The skeletal remains of their Pre-contact ancestors and these proof Both continuous contact and incursion of DNA from the eastern Aleutians the Village site was built on an even higher Sea cliff than the coral reef site that Has views of Nicole Ski Bay at home nak Island climbing ridge lines surrounded Village on the north and west protector Protecting it from the wind the large Ancestral and in gula villages site is Younger than the core of blade site they Had a gula village site was built on a Bluff over 70 feet above the sea and Here are remains of dozens of Semi-subterranean houses storage pits

Tools scanners and a few densely packed Biddin features another smaller village Site of the same side Age is on the opposite side of the Island from the main village and the Mussel on our village was a seasonal Camp used by people from the main Village at the main village sites Archaeologists have recorded up to 24 Depressions in the ground that are the Location of house ruins and many more Depressions revealing the location of Storage pits The houses are arranged in three kinship Unit reflecting rows along the edge of The bluff Is the same pattern is recorded at the Talton River ethnographic village site Number two of the Ice Mountain Archaeological expedition a small stream Supplied fresh water runs down the cliff Face to a narrow beach below only six of These three houses have been excavated Six of these houses have been excavated Each of these is Semite subterranean and Roughly rectangular ovoid in shape These range from 13 to 20 feet across And 20 to 30 feet wide archeologists Have also excavated some of the contents Of a minute feature on a slope at the Edge of the village are additional Archeological remains these have stolen Paved floors and narrow trenches on two Sides that meet to form a V shape with

The point of the V on the uphill side of The ruin the v-shaped trench is drained Moisture from the floors these Structures were used as food storage Facilities especially for a route plant Called uncut this is proof of the broad Spectrum revolution and in gula village Was buried beneath deep layers of Volcanic hairs that have grown over with By ryegrass and monkshood the ash layers Protected the site from wind erosion Archaeologists found Hammerstone’s Anvil blades scrapers retouched blades And tools made for right-handed or Left-handed use these artifacts were Preserved in their original positions at The time of the asphalt outside the Houses are several intact stone – Workshops where thousands of stone Flakes had been left behind by these Ancient craftspeople twenty thousand Artifacts were recovered from less than 1% of the site area the Aleutian chain Faces the bearing seen in the north and The Pacific Ocean to the south the Archipelago falls the arc of the Aleutian trench where the Pacific plate Meets the North American plate the Aleutian Islands encompassed 52 Volcanoes 27 of which are active And Alutiiq island is within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and Migratory seabirds nest in the rocky Cliffs of the island while important

Rabbits roaming aggressive grassy slopes Of the it of the island now next we come Of course to Alaska where the cool book River headquarters are in the Brooks Mountain range this 200 mile long river Runs through a landscape of birch spruce Poplar and Willow Well above the Arctic Circle finally it Rolls through the frozen tundra as it Nears its Chukchi Sea destination the Summers are short and ice-free this Remote koubek valley has been home for People for millennia their first houses Were dug into the ground with Above-ground extensions some of these House pits have been excavated about Midway on the Kobuk River at the site of Omean portage the first Americans camped Here it was like New York to settle the Incoming generations of arriving Europeans their economy was Broad-spectrum well resource that onion Portage and it evolved as it evolved Over preceding several hundred thousand Years in Northeast Asia this time Featuring a concentration on the herds Of caribou that were funneled through This bridge in their annual southbound Migration and on the onions well-done Yinz which flourished there we know the Marquis illogically and among the Artifacts they left behind In these homes and our Jade tools and Weapons the Jade is found in the form of

River nozzles washed down from Jade Mountain 150 miles from Kotzebue is Jade Mountain it’s a which is made of Beautiful dark green jade and is one of The westernmost peaks in the Brooks Range in China this Jade is called Heaven stolen we excavated an adze made Of it at the Talton River old fish house Site in 1969 Alaska’s thousands of summer tourists Leave homeward bound with jewelry at Trinkets made of Alaska Jade from That remote valley at any rate I’ll give Portage features they proliferate of Wild onion species giving it its name by The descendants of it the first arrivals Who lived there today Louis Giddings men Of Brown University made a surface Investigation of the house pits and Onion portage before World War two in The 1960s he returned and began to work At the site at first And by 1963 a large crew of scientists And helpers were working with them at That site they were carefully a covering Layer after layer of habitation and Collecting the artifacts of each layers Exposure the importance was that many Student may still be the oldest human Camp site so far known in Alaska and one Of getting several books he also tells The finds that Cape krusenstern then now Is a national alignment on the Arctic Ocean coast just north of Kotzebue this

Site of ancient populations is quite Large indicating a large population Proving again their peoples of the Upper Paleolithic of Siberia what we call a Prolific in North America were very Confident broad-spectrum well resourced Exploiters they would have had a lot of Time on their hands which like all Cultures of this mode of production Would have been spent thinking and Talking about their environment in Supernatural as well as natural terms Acting on these beliefs includes proof Found in one krusenstern site where the Ancient skeletons and ivory spinal Columns holding the vertebra together And with eye sockets filled with ivory Eyeballs that brings us to the broken Mammoth archaeological site the bottom Layer of which states to 13,500 BP at The end of the bridge period now here Were found by phase tools micro blades And micro blade productions Falls the Site overlooks the tadhana river valley Of interior Alaska Excavations have real reveal three Distinct occupations The oldest horse date to twelve thousand Two hundred BP this was the site of Temporary seasonal hunting and fishing a Small bone needle was found at one of These hearts the totality of evidence Shows that small band populations built This add to other camps of then they not

A complex three sites of the Soldado Roe Valley said not a river valley date to This period and these are the slaughter Point site the bead site have this the Broken mouth site above these Stratigraphically are remains of the Chindan complex of stone tools The chind and complex States from 13,500 To 13,000 years ago the stone tools from This period are small triangular or Tears teardrop shaped my faces usually Made of thin flakes and often poorly It’s flaked the children complex is Present at the broken bamboo site where A few flakes and bones are dated to Within this period and no microblaze Artifacts found at the broken malecite In cultural zone one included lansing Late sheep projectile point retouched Flakes and inside scrapers pointed foot Fragments flick Buren’s Buren’s poles Micro blades and lacquer Blake cores Beards are carving in pieces of stone Used to carve wood and bone the material That these artifacts were made from Include rhyolite chalcedony church was Sold at obsidian the obsidian originated From Batson Teta in Northwest Alaska and From the Wrangell st. Elias National Park and Preserve in East Alaska Cultural zone 2 has only produced a few Flakes fire broken rocks and harsh Stones Micro Lakes micro blades him yet to be

Excavated crews searched the bluff edge Excavations the cultural zone 3 at the Site of yielded many tiny flakes Retouched flakes larger by face Fragments points and point fragments Hammers made of quartz and anvil a small Eyed bone and needle Found associated with a hearth Radiocarbon dates to about ten thousand Three hundred BP the bone needle needle Means that the occupants use this site To process skins to make clothing debris From the making of tools has been found At cultural zone for the debris is Composed of rhyolite assault obsidian Church and quartzite implying that the Occupants of the site carried out sub Manufacturing and or repair of tools Artifacts at this zone include retouch Flakes scrapers at a large quartz Chopper scraper plane in addition Several ivory tusk fragments with Scratches that came from stole tools Have been found one tusk fragment has a Stolen microchip embedded in one of the Scratches a tool cache was also found With ivory artifacts two projectile Points in a possible handle one of the Ivory fragments from this cash was Radiocarbon dated to fifteen thousand Eight hundred BP the age of the ivory Suggests that the occupants brought it From a much older kill site the obsidian Used at this site came from wiki peak

And is dated as early as thirteen Thousand four hundred BP the same old City even was also used at the Walker Road site the Moose Creek site in the Same area dates earlier the thirteen Thousand BP the discovery of the broken Mammoth site establishes that human Occupation of central olestra began Before eleven thousand BP artefactual Evidence proves humans occupied parts of Central Africa Alaska before 13,500 BP And people had to have lived in the Region even earlier given the probable Early sediment interglacial site at the Confluence of the Talton And Stikine rivers in northern BC the Obsidian artifacts discovered a broken Mammoth proved earlier occupation in Northwest at East Alaska the broken Mammoth site offers excellent Preservation of remains of the animals Providing insight into the hunting Methods and food resources utilized by These learning people in North America Early occupation of the broken mammoths Had a setting similar to the lowland Tundra with low vegetation and mostly Shrubs and a few trees the regional Politic Provides evidence of shrubland with Plant life including dwarf birch and Willow After 9,000 years ago this problem Became woodland which supported spruce

And alder trees the faunal remains of a Red squirrel and the porcupine date the Process of forestation and a little over Nine thousand five hundred years ago Windier conditions reestablished at Broken mammoths around 10,000 BP with Less accumulation accelerating until 7800 BP and modern climate stabilized After 5700 beatbeat the Stratego fee a Broken mammoth is well preserved and is One of the primary factors that have Established the age of this site the Site consists of winter busting sand and Lusts overland weather bedrock of the You can Yukon Tanana crystalline Terrace These deposits are divided into four Units a b c and d in your textbook i go Into that detail but for our purposes we Can see the oldest layer big is unit Unit 8 composed of fine sand dating at 12,000 BP units b c and d are also made Of windblown silver loss unit b contains Three different Pelias soils that is Ancient soils me one is eleven thousand Two hundred vp to 11800 bt b to ten Thousand three hundred to nine thousand Three hundred there is no direct dating For b3 and unit c dates sometimes after Nine thousand BP and the final unit d is An accumulation of silt deposits over The last nine thousand eight thousand Years So large mammals fish and waterfowl Provide a broad spectrum of plentiful

Exploitable wild resources especially One when one remembers that avian father Was extremely diverse including mallard Teal Swan and geese the broken mammoth Site has remains of large animals Including mammoth elk caribou and bison Furthermore hundred or scavenged people Had access to mammoth ivory radiocarbon Dates are some of the fastest ice ivory Tools run from 20,000 18,000 BP on their Hearth charcoal that dates to 13,000 525 BP anyway these people were organized Into highly mobile bands that move Seasonally over the landscapes Exploiting the various resources and Wildlife the interception of the various Migratory routes of herd of bison and Elk and migratory birds was the strategy That may have required a commoditization Of their labor power occasionally people Have the technology for hunting mammals But they probably killed one mammoth in A lifetime and never stopped talking About it as I say the ivory tools made For mammoth tusks was probably scavenged Now it’s one point archeological site Which is located easter central Alaska In the Tanana River watershed the states Provide evidence of megafauna that no Longer existed Alaska including extinct Varieties of elk bison and mammoth Artifacts of the swamp website have been Given radiocarbon dates 14,500 years be Peak swap point has been occupied at

Least five times since then and it’s the Oldest don’t site and this is not a River valley the oldest cultural level Dates of 16 11600 to 10,000 BP artifacts Found include worked mammoth tusk Fragments microbleeds Micro black or preparation flakes blades Dihedral Buren’s Red ochre pebble hammers quartz tools And choppers a variety of by facial Points were found at this level and they Date approximately ten thousand two Hundred and thirty BP they include Lanceolate points with convex discrete Bases along with griever Spurs quartz Pebble choppers and hammers the mammoth Ivory artifacts found in the latest Pleistocene zone date to about fourteen Thousand years ago and worse cavities to Elsewhere which brings us to the Yukon The Yukon covers 186 thousand square Miles in Northwest Canada Alaska borders It to the west the Northwest Territories To its east British Columbia to its South and the Arctic Beaufort Ocean to Its north the ukata balance with Snowmelt lakes and Canada’s highest Perennial white capped mountains its Ragged eastern boundary follows the Divide between the Yukon River Basin and The Mackenzie River watershed to the East of the Mackenzie mountains except For the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea coast most of the Yukon is part of

The American Cordillera mountain ranges Plateaus and river valleys the Yukons Climate is Arctic north of Old Crow then It becomes subarctic between Old Crow And Whitehorse the long sunshine hours In the short summer allow a profusion of Flowers and fruit to blossom especially Of the more humid southeast otherwise The Yukon is boreal forest until except In the extreme north and high elevations Where Tundra becomes the main vegetation Permafrost is common the northern part Of Yukon has continuous permafrost while It is widespread in the central part Even the southern Yukon has scattered Patches of permafrost that is drought That’s frozen all year round now the Clue on e ice fields in Kalani National Park and reserve are the largest non Polar ice fields in the world The Kalani Claudie national park also Contains eight of Canada’s ten highest Mountains including the five highest all In the st. Elias mountains a number of Glaciers flow out of the ice fields Including the Logan glacier the hubbard Glacier and the costco escape glacier Now the Denali Fault in the Testino Fault have created major valleys called The sac watt trench and the Tim Tina Trench the former separates the Kalani Mountains from other mountain ranges North of it The Haynes Highway and Alaska Highway

North of Haines Junction are built in The shack black trench the turkey the Trench bisects the Yukon from Northwest To southeast and its edges have rich Mineral deposits including the Klondike Gold and led zones Inc deposits near Farrell Volcanoes in the Yukon are part of the Circle of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean known as the Pacific Ring of Fire The Yukon includes more than 100 Separate volcanic centers that have been Active during the quaternary the Fort Selkirk volcanic field in the central Yukon is the northernmost Holocene Volcanic field in Canada including the Young active cinder cone volcano Mountain the volcanic field in south Central Yukon is called alligator Lake Volcanic complex and contains two Well-preserved cinder cones that cap a Small shield volcano lava from the cones Traveled north and erupted at the same Time volcanoes in southwestern Yukon are Part of the Wrangell volcanic field Which is related to the subduction of The Pacific plate beneath the North American plate at the easternmost end of The Avalanche trench the seeded last Mountains are part of the coast mountain Range the range from southern British Columbia to Alaska and covered the Southeastern Yukon while the scene of Last Mountains contained the highest

Bough There are numerous other mountain ranges From the British mountains in the far North and the Richardson mountains in The Northeast both are part of the Brooks Range then we move from the Selwyn mountains and the McKenzie Battles of the east to the kasi are Mountains and the southeast Capelli mountains in the central Yukon And the Ogilvie mountains north of Dawson City and along the Dempster Highway most of the territory in the Watershed of the Yukon River flows into The Bering Sea the southern Yukon is Dotted with large numbers of large long And narrow glacier fed out blind leaks Most of which flow into the yukon river System and the larger lakes include Teslin lake Atlin lake Tagish Lake Marsh Lake Lake Laberge Kassala Lake Clooney Lake Bennett Lake on the clued nut on The Klondike Gold Rush trail is a Smaller way flowing into cat Tagish lake Rivers flow into the Pacific Ocean or Into the Arctic Ocean the owl SEC Tacticity drainage flows directly into The Pacific from the Southwest you cut a Number of rivers in northern Yukon flow Directly onto into the Arctic Ocean The two main Yukon rivers flowing into The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories are the liard river and in The southeast the PIO River and it’s

Tributaries in the Northeast submarket Köppen climate classification DFC Characterizes the long cold winters and Brief warm summers there is an airstrip At snag which is 15 miles east to Beaver Creek near the Alaska border that Recorded in low temperature of minus Eighty one point four degrees Fahrenheit On February 3rd 1947 that’s pretty cold The Arctic Ocean coast has very tried Tundra climate with little precipitation Even so it is considerably wetter in the Southeast Precipitation is much greater in the Mountains and the snowpack melts well in The summer resulting in high water in July August as we have seen except for the Arctic ocean coastal coastal plain and Highest elevations most of the Yukon is Boreal forests mountain peaks at higher Elevations our alpine tundra while the Coastal plain is Arctic coastal tundra The peel River area in the Northeast is In the taiga plains equal zone and the Arctic coast is in the southern Arctic Ecozone this is a continuation of the Central Siberian taiga the Yukon was and Is covered with forests these trees Being small took a long time to grow and Regenerate in the dry cold climate black Spruce white spruce quaking aspen Awesome poplar and Alaska birds are Found throughout much of the Yukon the

Lodgepole pine reaches its northern Extreme in the south-central part of the Territory while Tamarack groves Flourished in the southeast the Subalpine fir occurs at high elevations In the southern part of the territory Now large mammals include caribou loose Wolves grizzly bears and American black Bears higher elevations have ghoul sheep Rocky mountain goat polar bears and Inhabits the Arctic coast the mule deer And its predator the cougar more common In the South has our coyotes in the Northern Yukon elk and bison greeted the First humans arriving there is a Plethora of rodents including squirrels Ground squirrels living Spanky’s beavers Various voles porcupines and muskrats Mustelids including the Wolverines Marten ermine least weasel American mink And river otter occur everywhere Other small carnivores present are the Lynx red fox and arctic fox along the Northern coast more than 250 species of Birds inhabit the Yukon the most the Common Raven is the territorial bird and Is seen everywhere Other common resident birds include bald Eagles golden eagles gill Falcons and Peregrine falcons As our five species of grouse many Migratory birds breed in the Yukon at The northern end of the Pacific Flyway Other than the cod Lake freshwater

Burbot and the northern pike Most of the large fish found in Yukon Rivers lakes and streams are silicates Four species of the Pacific salmon Shinnok sockeye coho and chum breed in Yukon rivers and lakes in the Pacific And Yukon River watersheds the Yukon River has one of the longest freshwater Migration routes of any salmon another Long migratory reproductive route is Through the Stikine River drainage and Up to Talton River where my crew and I Assisted the local Native Americans in The summer of 1969 catching salmon on Their way to spawn anyway Chinook salmon Swim 2,000 miles from the river mouth in The Bering Sea – spawning grounds Upstream of Whitehorse There are also landlocked cocconi that Is sockeye salmon and rainbow trout lake Trout are present and most large Yukon Lakes as well as Dolly Varden bull trout And arctic char the arctic grayling is Ubiquitous while the Lynx have various Whitefish and inconnue There are no Yukon reptiles but there Are a few frogs and for some final Comments on northern breeze Columbia’s Geography the vast wilderness of Northern BC has a hundred and Ninety-three thousand square miles of Area and a diversity collectable Geography the Queen Charlotte Islands Extend into northern BC latitudes and

Have an equally diverse ecology ancient Old growth growth forests grade into Coastal ones breeze Columbia consists of Two major continental landforms the Interior plays in the provinces Northeast the British Columbia portion Of what is that part of the Alberta Plateau the rest of the province is part Of the western Cordillera of North America often referred to in candidate As specific Cordillera or Canadian Cordillera And the Cordillera itself is divided Into four main systems some of the Earliest American arrivals traveled down The Pacific Coast and up the navigable River before building camps there was an Ice-free corridor for most of the last Hundred thousand years along the margin Of the Rocky Mountains from the Yukon Through Washington State and therefore Some of the earliest inhabitants of North America arrived in this way still Others seem to have moved across the Northern coastal Tundra all the way to The Atlantic coast and then down into What is about the USA that brings us to A conclusion of this lecture of the Arrival of the earliest Americans to Summarize just let me say that there Were at least two major waves and Vibrations the first one which occurred When people cross the Bering Straits Probably a hundred thousand years ago

And arrived in LA and Brazil my Seventeen thousand years you of which we Can find just scattered remains here There in the rest of the hemisphere for A variety of reasons which we’ll Continue to talk about and the second One is a wave carrying blacker blade People carry blacker blades from Northeast Asia Which arrived is in far northern British Columbia by nine thousand five hundred Years ago in North America are in the Western Hemisphere as you’re about to See Native Americans the Indians of Today rose from three different Traditions that emerged from that very First migration and we’ll bring that Subject up as we go along so that kind Of concludes it for this morning this Morning and whenever I get finished with This next chapter we’ll have another Lecture

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